desalasworks presents:

a selection of works by steven de salas

DarklyLabs LaserWeb

Steven was a one-man team building on top of open source “LaserWeb” software, automating and simplifying complex user flows to bring laser cutting to the beginner user.

This project involved full SDLC, building a simple and easy-to-use JavaScript wizard interface for the Emblaser2 laser cutter & engraver, which went from design to delivery in 6 weeks.

A challenging and very enjoyable project using NodeJS, JavaScript (ES6), Electron (Win/OSX Desktop app), Embedded, Computer Numerical Control (CNC/GCODE), WebWorkers, USB serialport, Github, CI / build automation (Travis, Appveyor), CSS, DOM Events, Webpack, React, Redux, Socket IO, WebGL 3D.


Immutability in JavaScript: A Contrarian View

So if everyone says Immutability is good, that means mutating objects is bad, right?

I wrote this originally as a answer to a stack overflow question posed by someone who was as baffled by this JavaScript programming trend as I was.

Here is my answer to this topic, it is contrarian and may also be contentious, but bear in mind its not the only answer, its just my own point of view.

Q: Why is immutability so important(or needed) in javascript?

Well, I’m glad you asked!

Some time ago a very talented guy called Dan Abramov wrote a javascript state management library called Redux which uses pure functions and immutability. He also made some really cool videos that made the idea really easy to understand (and sell).

The timing was perfect. The novelty of Angular was fading, and JavaScript world was ready to fixate on the latest thing that had the right degree of cool, and this library was not only innovative but slotted in perfectly with React which was being peddled by another Silicon Valley powerhouse.

Sad as it may be, fashions rule in the world of JavaScript. Now Abramov is being hailed as a demigod and all us mere mortals have to subject ourselves to the Dao of Immutability… Wether it makes sense or not.

Q: What is wrong in mutating objects?


In fact programmers have been mutating objects for er… as long as there has been objects to mutate. 50+ years of application development in other words.

And why complicate things? When you have object cat and it dies, do you really need a second cat to track the change? Most people would just say cat.isDead = true and be done with it.

Q: Doesn’t (mutating objects) make things simple?

YES! … Of course it does!

Specially in JavaScript, which in practice is most useful used for rendering a view of some state that is maintained elsewhere (like in a database).

Q: What if I have a new News object that has to be updated? … How do I achieve in this case? Delete the store & recreate it? Isn’t adding an object to the array a less expensive operation?

Well, you can go the traditional approach and update the News object, so your in-memory representation of that object changes (and the view displayed to the user, or so one would hope)…

Or alternatively…

You can try the sexy FP/Immutability approach and add your changes to the News object to an array tracking every historical change so you can then iterate through the array and figure out what the correct state representation should be (phew!).

Q: I am trying to learn what’s right here. Please do enlighten me 🙂

Fashions come and go buddy. There are 10 ways to skin a cat.

I am sorry that you have to bear the confusion of a constantly changing set of programming paradigms. But hey, WELCOME TO THE CLUB!!

Now a couple of important points to remember with regards to Immutability, and you’ll get these thrown at you with the feverish intensity that only naivety can muster.

1) Immutability is awesome for avoiding race conditions in multi-threaded environments.

Multi-threaded environments (like C++, Java and C#) are guilty of the practice of locking objects when more than one thread wants to change them. This is bad for performance, but better than the alternative of data corruption. And yet not as good as making everything immutable (Lord praise Haskell!).

BUT ALAS! In JavaScript you always operate on a single thread. Even web workers (each runs inside a separate context). So since you can’t have a thread related race condition inside your execution context (all those lovely global variables and closures), the main point in favour of Immutability goes out the window.

Having said that, there is an advantage to using pure functions in web workers, which is that you’ll have no expectations about fiddling with objects on the main thread.

2) Immutability can somehow avoid race conditions in the state of your app.

And here is the real crux of the matter, most (React) developers will tell you that Immutability and FP can somehow work this magic that allows the state of your application to become predictable.

Of course this doesn’t mean that you can avoid race conditions in the database, to pull that one off you’d have to coordinate all users in all browsers, and for that you’d need a back-end push technology like WebSockets (more on this below) that will broadcast changes to everyone running the app.

This rather confusing claim simply means that the latest values assigned to a state object (defined by a single user operating within their browser) become predictable. Which is really no progress at all. Because you could have used a plain old mutated variable to track your state and you’d know you’re dealing with the latest information whenever you access it, and this will work with anything but React/Redux.

Why? Because React is special.. and component state is managed via a chain of events that you have no control over and rely on you remembering not to mutate state directly. This has been handled amazingly well from a PR perspective, as the React propaganda has turned a shortcoming into a sexy fashion. Fashion aside, I’d rather see immutability for what it is, ie a tool to plug a gap when your choice of framework does not handle state intuitively.

3) Race conditions are categorically bad.

Well, they might be if you are using React. But they are rare if you pick up a different framework.

Besides, you normally have far bigger problems to deal with… Problems like dependency hell. Like a bloated code-base. Like your CSS not getting loaded. Like a slow build process or being stuck to a monolithic back-end that makes iterating almost impossible. Like inexperienced devs not understanding whats going on and making a mess of things.

You know. Reality. But hey, who cares about that?

4) Immutability makes use of Reference Types to reduce the performance impact of tracking every state change.

Because seriously, if you are going to copy stuff every time your state changes, you better make sure you are smart about it.

5) Immutability allows you to UNDO stuff.

Because er… this is the number one feature your project manager is going to ask for?

6) Immutable state has lots of cool potential in combination with WebSockets

Last but not least, the accumulation of state deltas makes a pretty compelling case in combination with WebSockets, which allows for an easy consumption of state as a flow of events… When done right this can make real-time apps easier to accomplish. Having said that, given the fact this is surplus to requirements in most cases, the amazing potential here will generally go unexplored in most projects.

Now for some advice, should you choose to accept it.

A choice to write JavaScript using FP/Immutability is also a choice to make your application code-base larger, more complex and harder to manage. I would strongly argue for limiting this approach to your Redux reducers… unless you know what you are doing.

Now if you are fortunate enough to be able to make choices in your work, then try and use your wisdom (or not) and do what’s right by the person who is paying you. You can base this on your experience, on your gut, or whats going on around you (admittedly if everyone is using React/Redux then there a valid argument that it will be easier to find a resource to continue your work)… Alternatively, you can try either Resume Driven Development or Hype Driven Development approaches. They might be more your sort of thing.

In short, the thing to be said for immutability is that it will make you fashionable with your peers, at least until the next craze comes around, by which point you’ll be glad to move on.

And the reply!

Hello Steven, Yes. I had all these doubts when I considered immutable.js and redux. But, your answer is amazing! It adds lot of value and thanks for addressing every single point that I had doubts on. It’s so much more clear/better now even after working for months on immutable objects. – bozzmob